R is also open-source software, programming language developed at the university of Auckla in 1995 as an environment for statistical computing and graphics. After that R is become dominant environment in Data analysis. R is popularly known for graphical capabilities.
How to install R Script:
2: Choose Download R 3.5.1 for Windows option (It will download the file.)
3: Then click on that file. It will install the R script
R Studio: After above installation we can go for R Studio installation.
- Go to the CRAN website(https://cran.r-project.org/bin/windows/base/),
- Click on download R for Windows, and download the latest version of R.
- Right-click the installer file and RUN as administrator.
- Select the operational language for installation.
- Follow the instructions for installation.
Note: Make sure your r script and R Studio must have same version. If not you will face the problem of packages installation.
After installation your R Studio will look like below window. It is divided into four section.
Graphical User Interfaces with Tk.
The Tkinter module with “Tk interface” is the standard Python interface to the Tk GUI toolkit . It is formerly developed by Sun Labs . It is available on Unix platforms, as well as on Windows system . It provides native look and feel for all platforms.
It consists of a n number of modules and it also provided by a binary extension module named _tkinter with help of Tk interface. This module have the low-level interface to Tk, and should not be used directly by application programmers. It is usually a contained shared library or DLL files, but might in some cases be statically linked with the Python interpreter.
Python modules provides n number of public interface. Tkinter module is the most important module within the python module (Library).
It exposes the following geometry manager classes: pack, grid, and place.
- The pack() Method – blocks before placing them in the parent widget.
- The grid() Method – table-like structure in the parent widget.
- The place() Method – placing them in a specific position in the parent widget.
To use Tkinter in the program , you need to import the Tkinter module are as follow:
Or, more often:
from tkinter import *
from tkinter import *
top = Tk()
c1 = Canvas(top, bg=”blue”, height=250, width=300)
d = 10, 50, 240, 210
arc = c1.create_arc(d,start=0, extent=150, fill=”red”)